Lights and Shadows

Title of Lesson: Lights and Shadows

Subject: Science

Grade level: 1 st Grade

Teacher: Caroline Templeton and Anna Crittendon

Objective(s): (APS 4)

 During a discussion on lights and shadows, students will demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between lights and shadows by actively contributing to class discussions, a demonstration, and a KWL chart.

 After a hands-on learning experience in which students trace a partner’s shadow, students will be able to correctly describe how the position of a light source affects the size (length) of the object’s shadow.

SCSDE Curriculum Standard(s) Addressed: (APS 4, 6)

Standard 1.P.2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the properties of light and how shadows are formed.

Performance Indicators:

1.P.2A.! Obtain and communicate information to describe how light is required to make objects visible.

1.P.2A.3 Conduct structured investigations to answer questions about how shadows change when the position of the light source changes.

Prerequisites:

 Students should be able to work collaboratively with a partner.

 Students should have basic knowledge of the characteristics of light.

 Students should have a basic understanding of the definition of a shadow.

 Students should have basic knowledge of an existing relationship between light and shadows.

 Students should know how to measure length to the nearest inch.

 Students should be able to draw conclusions through inquiry.

 Students should have an understanding of sundials.

Materials/Preparation: (APS 6)

 4 different colored pieces of sidewalk chalk for every 2 students

 1 tape measure for every 2 students

 Flashlight

 Water bottle

 1 worksheet for every student

 Books relating to light and shadows

o Whose Shadow is This by Claire Berge

o What Makes a Shadow? by Clyde Robert Bulla

o My Shadow by Robert Louis Stevenson

o Blackout by John Rocco

o Light and Dark by Anna Claybourne

o A Lonely Shadow by Clay Rice

In preparation, 4 pieces of sidewalk chalk and a tape measure will be placed into a small bag for each pair of students. This small bag will be placed in a gallon bag that will also include 2 worksheets for each pair of students. These bags will be distributed after the mini-lesson before students go outside for the first time. Students will be assigned a partner (by teacher choice) before the lesson begins. Before the lesson begins, the teacher will determine an appropriate location outside for students to trace their shadows. The books relating to light and shadows will be added to the reading center.

Procedures: (APS 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)

 Introductory Activity: The teacher will read The Shape of Me and Other Stuff by Dr. Seuss. After this, students will be asked a focus question: What makes a shadow? Discussion will be facilitated, and we will make a KWL (Know-Want to Know-Learn). We will briefly discuss that all shadows will have different shapes due to the shape and size of the object that blocks a light in order to form the shadow.

 Main Activity: We will teach a mini-lesson on light and shadows. We will discuss how shadows are formed when light is unable to pass through an object. These objects are called “opaque.” As a result, a shadow is formed behind the object. The size and position of the shadow is determined by the position of the light source. A shadow does not exist when a light source, such as the sun, is directly overhead. As the sun (or any light source) moves to a lower position, the shadow grows longer. We will do a brief demonstration to illustrate these key points. We will use a flashlight and water bottle in order to show how the position of the light source affects the size of the shadow. After this mini-lesson, students will learn and reinforce the concepts primarily through inquiry. Students will go outside in order to create a human sundial. Students will be divided into partners. One student will be the tracer, and one student will be traced. Partners will be assigned ahead of time, but students will have the freedom to decide who fulfills each role. If students are unable to come to an agreement, the student with the latest birthday will be traced, and the student with the earliest birthday will be the tracer. Students will be taken to a large area outside where chalk may be used (i.e. sidewalks, parking lot, or blacktop). Each pair will choose a location that provides plenty of personal space; pairs should not be close to one another. The student who is being traced will trace his feet once he has chosen a location, and this will be used for the remainder of the day. The student who is responsible for tracing will simply trace the shadow of his partner and will label it according to the time of day. Each shadow should be measured with a tape measure to the nearest inch. Students will be taken out at 8:00 AM, 10:00 AM, 12:00 PM, and 2:00 PM. The shadow at each point of the day will be traced with chalk of a different color in order to easily distinguish between all tracings. At the end of the activity, students will answer the questions on the worksheet in order to compare the shadows at the different times of day.

 Closure: Students will return to the classroom after the last shadow tracing at 2:00. They will then write a brief journal entry in their science journal in which they will reflect on the differences between the 4 shadows. Students will draw conclusions about what caused their shadow to change. In conclusion, several students will be asked to share their reflections.

Assessment: (APS 3)

 Students will be informally assessed through class discussion. Students should demonstrate understanding of light and shadows by answering questions, participating in discussion, and suggesting points for the KWL chart.

 Students will be formally assessed through the completion of journal entries and worksheets. Each journal entry should reflect on the differences of the shadows and should include at least 5 sentences. Each worksheet should be fully completed and should have measurements to the nearest inch.

Adaptations and Accomodations: (APS 6, 7)

 Any student with a physical disability will be paired with an able-bodied student. Students with physical disabilities will be assigned the role of the student who is being traced.

 Students in need of any reading accommodations (i.e. IEP or 504 Plan) will be paired with an advanced reader in order to be able to read the worksheet. The teacher may read to these students on an individual at any point during the lesson if necessary.

 While writing reflections at the end of the lesson, early finishers will be encouraged to read teacher-selected books relating to the topic of light and shadows.

o Whose Shadow is This by Claire Berge

o What Makes a Shadow? by Clyde Robert Bulla

o My Shadow by Robert Louis Stevenson

o Blackout by John Rocco

o Light and Dark by Anna Claybourne

o A Lonely Shadow by Clay Rice

Follow-up Lessons/Activities: (APS 7)

 Students will continue light and shadows and begin to learn about different types of objects, such as opaque, translucent, and transparent. Students will learn that shadows are only created by opaque and translucent objects; transparent objects cannot create shadows because light passes through.

 A shadow puppet center will be created in the classroom. A sheet will be hung from the ceiling, and another sheet will be hung to the side of this in order to create a slightly darker environment. There will be 2-3 flashlights, and small groups of students can explore the concept of making shadow puppets. There will be laminated sheets that provide simple diagrams and instructions for creating a variety of animal shadow puppets.

 The science center will include materials such as flashlights of different sizes and strengths as well as objects of different shapes and sizes. Students will have the freedom to further explore the relationship between lights and shadows as well as gain an understanding of the factors that affect a shadow’s size.

 

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